Wakgari Abirham Haile1* and Tilahun Ayano2
1&2Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
*Correspondence: firstname.lastname@example.org (Wakgari Abirham Haile, Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia).
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This review study is aimed to provide information about the IBK which results in ocular pain and loss of vision that would result in the reduction of the market price of the affected animal. Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) or ‘pink eye’ is a common and highly contagious ocular disease. The disease is caused by the bacteria family Moraxellaceae, genus Moraxella and species Moraxella bovis. M. bovis is a gram-negative rod. The occurrence and distribution of the disease are worldwide and the persistence of the disease from year to year is by means of infected animals, which can act as carriers. Transmission is unusual in the absence of flies and occurs generally in their presence. A number of factors such as tall grass, weeds, dust, face flies and ultraviolet radiation, and other stress factors contribute to the disease occurrence. The pathogenesis of IBK is likely associated with collagenase release from epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and neutrophils. Hydrolytic enzymes of M. bovis possess the ability to degrade lipids, mucopolysaccharides, and matrix proteins, which may contribute to corneal ulceration. The first signs of pinkeye are characterized by excessive tearing, blinking, photophobia, and swelling of the eyelids and conjunctiva. As the disease progresses, the ocular discharge becomes purulent. The disease is usually diagnosed with clinical signs like excessive lacrimation and culturing of the bacteria from ocular exudates. IBK is differentially diagnosed from M. bovis, Pasteurella multocida, IBRT, and Thelaziasis. Drugs may be delivered to the eye in several ways: subconjunctival injection, topical application, and systemic administration to treat the diseases. Vaccination and fly control are some of the prevention and control measures. This disease is economically very important which causes severe ocular disorder in cattle which may result in the suffering of the animal from pain and loss of vision thereby economic loss due to bodyweight loss by the stress from pain, inability to feed properly, and the blindness that reduces the price of sale. Therefore, it is recommended that the susceptible cattle should be housed to avoid exposure to UV radiation and the populations of face flies should be controlled to minimize the incidence and transmission of IBK.
Keywords: Prevalence, Infectious Bovine keratoconjunctivitis, Moraxella bovis, Diagnosis, and Pink eye.
Citation: Haile WA, and Ayano T. (2021). A brief review on the prevalence, diagnosis prevention of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis, Am. J. Pure Appl. Sci., 3(2), 42-49. https://doi.org/10.34104/ajpab.021.042049
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