Article Correction, Retraction, and Withdrawal Policy

Universe Publishing Group (UniversePG) believes in protecting and maintaining the integrity of the academic record. Articles officially published in UniversePG are considered as the Version of Record. Very rarely, when the scientific information in an article is substantially undermined then it becomes necessary for UniversePG to publish major or minor corrections to, or retractions of articles published in its journal, at the discretion of the editorial body.

The authors are encouraged to report errors in their articles with regard to the accuracy of published information. Only the errors that impact the article significantly will be considered. Corrections are made at the journal’s reviewer's discretion. The correction procedure will depend on the publication stage of the article.

Articles may be retracted because of scientific misconduct in cases such as multiple submissions, bogus claims of authorship, plagiarism, or fraudulent use of data. A signed declaration from the concerned authors will be needed to be submitted before an article can be withdrawn. Copyright of all the authors of a manuscript is essential before a revocation can be published. A notice of retraction will be published and linked to the main article clearly marked as retracted. The notice will also include the reason for the retraction and who is retracting the article. The original article will not be removed from online versions of the journal but will be identified as a retracted article from the UniversePG.

Articles can be withdrawn either by the author's request or the publisher and pay withdrawal charges. Article withdrawal by the authors may be permitted only for the most compelling and unavoidable reasons, after submitting a letter signed by all authors of the article to the editorial office stating the reason for article withdrawal. The authors must not undertake that their paper has been withdrawn until they have accepted the right notification of this consequence from the editorial office. If an article is found to violate the ethical publishing guidelines of the UniversePG such as duplicate publication, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data, and multiple submission of authorship, the publisher has all the right to withdraw all areas of the article.